Resistors are a common component regularly found in electrical circuits, capable of reducing current flow, adjusting signal levels, dividing voltages, terminating transmission lines, and much more. With their many abilities, resistors are essential for the proper and safe operation of countless electronic devices and applications.


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A Dual In-Line Package (DIP) switch is a set of electrical switches packaged in a small box or housing. They are designed to be mounted on printed circuit boards to provide a range of electrical inputs to an electronic device based on the position of the individual switches. They are typically arranged in a line or, in the case of a rotary DIP, a circle. DIP switches serve as an alternative to jumper blocks. Their main advantages are their ability to quickly change positions and the fact that there are no parts to lose. However, the popularity of DIP switches has waned in recent times thanks to the rise of customizable software configurations.


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In general, gas turbine aircraft use one of two types of electric starting systems: direct cranking electrical systems or starter generators. Direct cranking electric starting systems are mainly used on small turbine engines, such as auxiliary power units, and some small turboshaft engines. Adversely, starter generator systems are found on gas turbine engines. The two systems are similar, except that after functioning as a starter, starter generators feature a second series of windings that allow it to operate as a generator once the engine has reached the appropriate speed. This saves weight and space within the engine.


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In an air compressor, the head gasket serves to form a seal between the cylinder head and the valve plate assembly. After prolonged use, the inner portion of the gasket will likely begin to deteriorate, causing a leak within the compressor pump. The head gasket is also susceptible to damage and should be inspected whenever the pump is serviced. If your compressor isn’t working up to standard, replacing the gasket head may be the solution. In this blog, we will cover the twelve steps to replacing the head gasket on an air compressor.


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An aircraft flap is a high-lift device mounted on the wing-trailing edges of an aircraft where they increase an aircraft wing’s lift. Flaps also produce extra lift when an aircraft is taking off and, when they are extended, increase the curvature of the wing to help the aircraft generate lift even at low speeds. Essentially, aircraft flaps adapt to aid in whatever phase of flight your aircraft is in. Despite them all carrying out relatively similar functions, there are multiple types of aircraft flaps. In this blog, we will discuss the six most common types and explain their unique characteristics.


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Ground power units, a crucial part of any hangar, are vehicles used to supply power to an aircraft parked on a runway or in a hangar. Every ground power unit, or GPU, provides a specified power through the use of an electrical system, a battery pack, and a gasoline, diesel, or small turbine engine. Since their inception, GPUs have allowed for ground support equipment to both become smaller and increase in efficiency. But what exactly does a GPU do, and what are the different types? This blog will explain the types of GPUs, their function, and mistakes to avoid when buying one.


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When establishing or replacing parts for piping, tubing, and other similar systems that feature many interconnected components, it can oftentimes be difficult to find exact fits for connecting installations. For fluid applications in particular, or for those where fluids must not enter a system, having imperfect fits can lead to leaking, damage, and more. As such, parts often require a middle component to act as a compressed seal to close off the assembly. An O-ring, or packing, is a torus-shaped mechanical gasket that is used in such instances, providing countless assemblies with sealing action through its simplistic design. As O-rings are widely used across many applications as one of the most common sealing components, understanding their construction and functionality can be highly beneficial.


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In regards to electronics and electrical systems, potentiometers are a type of three-terminal resistor that allows for the manual adjustment of resistance to govern current flow. With their various types, potentiometers serve many applications such as audio, television, motion control, transducers, and computations as a variable resistor or rheostat. To best understand how potentiometers can be used for a particular system, it is best to be aware of their functionality and common types.


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Within the world of computers and electronic devices, a number of components have greatly revolutionized our electronic capabilities and their power. The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOSFET, is an insulated-gate field-effect transistor and semiconductor device that is implemented within electronics for the means of switching and amplifying electronic signals. With its capabilities, the MOSFET serves as the basic building block of all modern electronics and has become the most manufactured device in all of history. In this blog, we will discuss what MOSFETS are, how they function, and their common applications.


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Within a process plant, upwards of 1,000 mechanical switches may be used in order to govern hard alarms, fans, emergency shutdowns, and more. While these mechanical switches have served their purpose well since their implementation, they can often take up a great amount of space, may be nearing the end of their service lives, and present various downsides in their operation. Additionally, such mechanical switches can also be replaced with more efficient and productive alternatives that continue to be developed with high capabilities. In this blog, we will discuss the main alternatives to mechanical switches, offering considerations that should be made to decide whether it is time to make the switch.


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The hairspring is a flat, spiral spring that consists of 12 to 15 turns, weighs around 1 milligram, and is approximately 0.03 millimeters thick. Hairsprings serve a single purpose: when they coil and uncoil, hairsprings propel a balance wheel that spins around its axis. This balance is a flywheel and is meant to accumulate the energy provided by the hairspring. Both are made so this oscillation is as regular and repeatable as possible in order to become a stably recurring phenomenon. Because of the reliability of hairsprings, they are frequently used in watches and master clocks, which are used to measure time in very small increments. Wheels and pinions convert the oscillation into seconds, minutes, hours, and so on. Because hairsprings transform the energy they receive into information, it is considered a mechanical processor.


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Heat sinks are utilized in electronic gadgets and gatherings to give supplemental cooling that is required to forestall overheating of segments. These components are planned and upgraded to guarantee that electronic gadgets work inside the temperature ranges given by producers. Basically a heat sink is for preventing overheating on machines and mechanisms. Below you can find some important things to take in account before using a heat sink for such purposes. 


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While electricity has changed the way we interact with the world forever with advanced technologies and capabilities, it still remains a volatile force that must be controlled to avoid damages and dangers. Wirewound resistors are electrical components that are placed within a circuit to limit or restrict the flow of current. Wirewound resistors are typically constructed by winding a metal wire around a core, and coatings of enamel or molded plastic form a barrier around the resistor. The typical wirewound resistor is engineered to withstand temperatures of up to 450 degrees Celsius, and they are present in many high power and industrial applications. In this blog, we will discuss some of the primary types of wirewound resistors that are commonly used for electric applications, as well as their individual properties and uses.


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An aircraft fastener is an important part type which is used to secure two or more components together. Fasteners are what allow for the assembly of the aircraft, ranging from structural components to the installation of flight instruments. Fasteners are so critical to the construction of an aircraft that a single Boeing 747-800 is composed of around 3,000,000 fasteners, accounting for half of the total number of parts. Due to their importance, it can be very beneficial to understand the various fasteners that make up assemblies, as well as their differences. In this blog, we will discuss a few of the common fastener types such as nuts, bolts, and washers.


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High speed fiber optic networks allows for faster internet to homes, nonprofit organizations and entities, and businesses and further enables for more productivity in the day-to-day task load, whether it’s sending emails, booking tickets to concerts, or streaming your favorite episode of The Office (aka The Dinner Party). There are a multitude of benefits to having fiber optic connectivity, some of which you can read more about in the article below.


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Flight recorders, otherwise known as a “black box”, are flight instruments that record and store the state and performance of an aircraft during operation. Two components, the flight data recorder and the cockpit voice recorder, are the standard parts that make up each flight recorder. Together, the flight recorder is able to record pertinent information from the aircraft flight instruments and cockpit such as altitude, speed, vertical acceleration, pitch, pilot cockpit communication, radio transmissions, and much more.


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While the average flyer might not be as familiar with aircraft powered by turboprop engines and propellers, they are found in many single, twin and commuter aircraft. Single and twin engine aircraft use the Pratt & Whitney PT-6 turboprop engine, a popular option with power spanning from 500 to 2,000 shaft horsepower.


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The attitude indicator, sometimes known as the artificial horizon, is a flight instrument that denotes an aircraft's orientation relative to the earth's horizon and provides immediate indication of any orientation changes. It shows rotation about the longitudinal axis to indicate the degree of bank, and the lateral axis to display pitch.


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Like automobiles, aircraft mount batteries that are used in the ignition sequence for the engines and auxiliary power unit (APU). Unlike car batteries however, aircraft batteries are responsible for much more. If there is an electrical generation failure during a flight, the batteries will be required to provide power until the aircraft can land, and can also be used to restart the engines if a flame-out occurs.


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Part of a pilot’s qualification is that they are able to fly purely off of the information provided by their instruments. Just as important as this, if not more important, is the ability to recognize errors and malfunctions of those same instruments. Only once a pilot has complete knowledge of their aircraft’s instruments can they safely take flight. Many aircraft flight instruments operate through a pitot-static system. Instruments of this type are usually used to determine factors such as airspeed, mach number, and altitude.


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Control surface failures are thankfully rare, but easily some of the most stressful malfunctions a pilot can face. Occurring mostly during takeoff, a control surface failure compounds an already tense moment, adding to the issues and factors a pilot already faces in such a situation. Thankfully, by keeping a clear head and taking prompt action, the pilot can prevent an accident from occurring.


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An aircraft adheres to similar principles of flight that birds do — it must overcome gravitational forces to achieve lift. In its simplest definition, the wings of an airplane curve the flow of air around them in order to generate lift.


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As you prepare to go on a long car journey, you will likely need to check the fuel levels of your car. Luckily for you, there is a handy dial in the dashboard of your car which indicates your fuel supply. A pilot has a similar routine inside the cockpit, however, the miles covered are significantly more and the implications far more costly. Additionally, the fuel system of an aircraft is far more complex than in a car. Luckily for the pilot, a variety of fuel system indicators provide a comprehensive view of the system’s health.


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On an aircraft, there are multiple electrical systems that play their part in ensuring the proper functioning and sustaining flight. Just like your house needs an electricity source, an aircraft needs a reliable source of power that will not only start up the aircraft but keep it running with all the various aircraft lights and indicators.

There a few key components of an electrical system that are found in all aircraft. While they may be more advanced in some aircraft, the underlying principles and features of an electrical system are the same throughout the various makes and models. There are switches, backup batteries, alternators, and voltage regulators. Like a typical electric system, electrical energy needs to be diverted and stored to prevent system outages.


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A pneumatic system can power a variety of important aircraft operations including aircraft landing gear, air conditioning systems, flight control systems, and more. Whether a high-pressure system of 3000 psi, or a low-pressure system of 1000 psi, pneumatic systems are an integral part of today’s aircraft technology. A wonderful example of the uses of a pneumatic system is in its application on a twin-engine commercial airplane.


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The concept of the o-ring is very similar to that of a gasket. Both are specially designed seals that fill space between two surfaces in order to prevent leakage when a mechanism is static or compressed. An O-ring is designed to act as a seal to prevent fluid leakage in a variety of practicalities, including aircraft pneumatic and hydraulic systems.


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Aircraft material failures are one of the leading causes of aircraft engine failure. One of the most prevalent failures involves aircraft metal fatigue. The term refers to the exposure of metal aircraft components to continuous load stress, which leads to the accumulation of microcracks, and thus the weakening of said components. Determining whether aircraft metal fatigue will occur is not a matter of if, but when. Let’s examine how metal fatigue is caused over the life cycle of an aircraft, and how manufacturers determine fatigue limits and inspection.


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Aircraft was originally designed without brake systems and were able to slow down with the use of slower airspeeds, softer airfield surfaces, and friction developed by the tail skid. Brake systems started becoming more common when aircraft became faster and more complex and are now an integral aspect of an aircraft’s design. There are many different types of brakes and supportive technology used to slow down an aircraft.


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Jet engines are the heart and soul of modern aircraft, making the act of flying at incredible speeds possible. But in order to be sure that they work and it's safe to fly, jet engines need to adhere to strict standards and be rigorously tested for compliance. These standards are primarily for safety, but they're also for efficiency.


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Believe it or not, but traveling by plane is significantly safer than by car. The many protocols, regulations, and safety nets commonly used in aviation simply outclass those implemented in standard vehicles. So, when a plane crashes, it comes instantaneous news and investigators work tirelessly to find out what happened. And their first clue is the aircraft black box.


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Planes can range anywhere from the size of a sedan to the size of the Titanic. And the number of parts they have can range from a couple thousand to the 6,000,000 that the Boeing 747 boasts. To someone who isn't in the business of working with planes, understanding what parts make up a plane can seem daunting and impossible. Fortunately, it's not, because most planes have the same 5 major components that are then broken down into hundreds and thousands of aircraft parts.


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Those who work in the aerospace and aviation industries know better than anyone how important it is to have everything, every piece from the enormous fuselage to the smallest nuts and bolts, be perfect. When it comes to getting massive hunks of metal weighing in the tons to be airborne and fly, every little detail needs to be calculated and accounted for. So, even aviation industrial fasteners, like other metal items and components, are often heat-treated in order to achieve the “perfect” level of rigidity, smoothness, malleability, or strength.


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