While the average flyer might not be as familiar with aircraft powered by turboprop engines and propellers, they are found in many single, twin and commuter aircraft. Single and twin engine aircraft use the Pratt & Whitney PT-6 turboprop engine, a popular option with power spanning from 500 to 2,000 shaft horsepower.

Turboprop engines such as the P&W 150 and Rolls Royce AE2100 are used for larger aircraft and can provide up to 5,000 shaft horsepower. Turboprop propellers are powered by a gas turbine engine via reduction-gear assembly, a highly-efficient power source. What follows is a brief introduction to turboprop engines, propellers, and how they work together and separately.

Propeller control systems are segregated into separate types of control: one for flight and the other for ground operation. In flight, the propeller blade angle and fuel flow for a given power level are controlled by a predetermined schedule. If the power dips below the level required for idle flight, the rpm and blade angle schedule will no longer be able to control the engine properly.

Below the ‘flight idle’ power level, the aircraft enters the ground handling range, wherein the propeller blade is no longer controlled by the propeller governor, but instead the power lever position. If the lever is moved below the startup position, the pitch is inverted to provide reverse thrust and deceleration upon landing.

A feature of turboprop engines is that changes in power are not associated with engine speed, but rather turbine inlet temperature. The propeller maintains a constant engine speed during flight, referred to as the 100 percent rated speed, which is the speed at which the most power and performance efficiency is available. Power, and therefore speed, is affected by altering the rate of fuel flow.

Greater fuel flow causes an increase in turbine inlet temperature and a resulting surplus of power, which is transmitted to the propeller in the form of torque. To withstand the increase in torque, the propeller increases its blade angle thereby maintaining the constant engine rpm with additional thrust.

At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the turboprop engine and propeller parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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The attitude indicator, sometimes known as the artificial horizon, is a flight instrument that denotes an aircraft's orientation relative to the earth's horizon and provides immediate indication of any orientation changes. It shows rotation about the longitudinal axis to indicate the degree of bank, and the lateral axis to display pitch.

There are three main parts of the instrument the pilot must monitor. The first is the miniature set of wings attached to the case remaining parallel to the wings of the aircraft. Another is the horizon bar, the bar that separates the top and bottom halves of the gyroscopic ball. The ball features a light-colored top half and dark bottom half separated by a line representing the horizon. The third main part is the marks on the upper part of the dial that represent the aircraft's degree of bank. The first three marks are ten degrees apart, followed by sixty and ninety degree marks. A standard turn has a bank of fifteen degrees.

When the attitude indicator is in use, the horizon bar is held parallel to the natural horizon by the gyroscopic rigidity. As pitch or bank of the aircraft changes, the miniature aircraft moves along with it. Attitude indicators are limited by the maximum rotation of the gyro. Older, vacuum-driven attitude indicators have bank limits of approximately 100-110 degrees and pitch limits around 60-70 degrees. Many newer models of attitude indicator have greatly increased their limits to keep up with the performance capabilities of newer, higher quality aircraft.

In the past, vacuum-powered gyros have generally been preferred over electric because of their simplicity and lower cost. Despite this, the importance of a functional attitude indicator has led to an increase in electric indicators in lighter aircraft. Electric attitude indicators have advantages such as easier readability, reduced limitations, and fewer errors. Another advantage is that electric gyros can be located remotely, and the assembly can be mounted at a more convenient location than behind the instrument panel.

The attitude indicator is one of a pilot's most important instruments, and guaranteeing its function is imperative. At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the flight instrument parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at 1-914-359-2001.

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Like automobiles, aircraft mount batteries that are used in the ignition sequence for the engines and auxiliary power unit (APU). Unlike car batteries however, aircraft batteries are responsible for much more. If there is an electrical generation failure during a flight, the batteries will be required to provide power until the aircraft can land, and can also be used to restart the engines if a flame-out occurs.

Batteries also serve as a buffer regulating the DC network voltage to ensure acceptable power quality for the equipment connected to the network. Given these crucial functions, batteries are absolutely critical components on an aircraft that need to be treated carefully and maintained diligently.

Types of Aircraft Batteries

  • Lead Acid
  • Nickel Cadmium (NiCd)
  • Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH)
  • Lithium-ion/Lithium-polymer
  • Lithium Metal

Batteries come in two general types in aviation: nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and lead-acid. Lead-acid batteries are either vented or valve regulated, and are frequently used in light or general aviation aircraft. Vented Ni-Cd batteries are primarily used in larger aircraft and helicopters.

Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Batteries

Ni-Cd batteries consisted of interleaved electrodes connected by internal current connectors to terminals that pass through the cell cover. Between the electrodes, a non-woven polyamide felt separator keeps the alkaline electrolyte in contact with the active surface. This both prevents short circuits, and allows flow through the electrolyte. The separator system also includes an oxygen barrier made of organic or micro-porous synthetic materials, which, during overcharge, minimizes oxygen recombination to ensure a stable and low overcharge current.

The electrode assembly is housed in a rigid plastic container that allows cells to be fitted side-by-side in a battery case, with each cell equipped with a low pressure vent valve that can be removed to allow water addition. This vent allows any gasses produced during normal operations to be released, while preventing electrolytes from escaping and contaminants from entering.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries use one 12-cell or two 6-cell plastic containers to house individual cells that are series-connected through the cell wall. This creates a mono-bloc structure where cells cannot be individually removed or checked. Inter-electrode separation is assured by the use of polymeric or glass fiber mats that maintain the sulphuric acid electrolyte in contact with the active surface.

The main difference between vented and VRLA batteries is the use of higher pressure valves and different separators that, in VRLA, are designed to promote oxygen transfer to maximize oxygen recombination.

Like other aviation components, all battery types require regularly scheduled maintenance checks to ensure their safety. This is typically performed at dedicated battery shops, which possess the specialized equipment needed to safely inspect and repair batteries.

NSN Fulfillment provides a complete list of Aircraft Batteries and Accessories. Click here for Aircraft Batteries and Accessories Catalog  

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Part of a pilot’s qualification is that they are able to fly purely off of the information provided by their instruments. Just as important as this, if not more important, is the ability to recognize errors and malfunctions of those same instruments. Only once a pilot has complete knowledge of their aircraft’s instruments can they safely take flight. Many aircraft flight instruments operate through a pitot-static system. Instruments of this type are usually used to determine factors such as airspeed, mach number, and altitude.

The pitot-static system measures the total combined pressures, both static and dynamic pressure, in an aircraft while it is moving through the air. Static pressure is also known as ambient pressure and is present in an aircraft at all times - in flight and on the ground. Dynamic pressure is only a factor during flight. An example of dynamic pressure is wind. If an aircraft is maneuvering through still air at 70 knots or if the aircraft is facing the wind with a speed of 70 knots, the same amount of pressure is being exerted on the craft.

There are four main pitot static instruments. They are the airspeed indicator, altimeter, machmeter, and vertical speed indicator. The airspeed indicator is controlled by both the pitot and static pressure sources. The difference in these pressures is another example of dynamic pressure. The higher the dynamic pressure, the greater the airspeed will be. The altimeter, also called the barometric altimeter, denotes adjustments in air pressure that occur as an aircraft’s altitude changes.

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Aircraft capable of operating at transonic or supersonic speeds will be equipped with a machmeter. This instrument is used to show the ratio of an aircraft’s speed relative to the speed of sound. The machmeter displays the Mach number as a decimal fraction. The final instrument is the vertical speed indicator. Also known as the variometer, the VSI is used to denote an aircraft’s rate of climb or descent. This figure is either measured in feet per minute or meters per second.

Each instrument on an aircraft plays an important role. The proper function of each one is vital to the performance. This makes it so important that you get all your aviation parts from a trusted source. At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique military parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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Control surface failures are thankfully rare, but easily some of the most stressful malfunctions a pilot can face. Occurring mostly during takeoff, a control surface failure compounds an already tense moment, adding to the issues and factors a pilot already faces in such a situation. Thankfully, by keeping a clear head and taking prompt action, the pilot can prevent an accident from occurring.

One type of control surface failure involves losing control of the rudder. The rudder, or vertical stabilizer, provides yaw control to the aircraft. Yaw is the direction the aircraft is pointing on its horizontal plane, either left or right. The rudder is connected to rudder pedals in the cockpit via either mechanical linkage, or electronic cabling in fly-by-wire systems. These systems can become disconnected, or the mechanical actuation of the rudder itself can become blocked by rust, corrosion, or foreign debris if it isn't regularly inspected and cleaned.

During takeoff, the rudder is used to counteract the various forces that push an aircraft left during takeoff. In propeller-driven aircraft, torque from the engine propeller rotating clockwise forces the left side of the aircraft down towards the runway, which causes the left tire to have more friction on the ground that the right tire, and makes it veer to the left.

P-factor, or asymmetric propeller loading, occurs when the downward moving propeller blade takes a larger "bite" out of the air than the upward moving blade, and typically occurs if the aircraft has a tailwheel configuration, or is flying at a high angle of attack.

Gyroscopic precession occurs when force is applied to a spinning disc, in this case a propeller. Then force is applied to a part of the disc (in this case the movement of air) the effect of that force is felt 90 degrees in the direction of the rotation of the disc.

Lastly is the spiralling slipstream that is caused by the air moving behind and active propeller, which eventually wraps its way around the fuselage to hit the tail of the aircraft on its left side, which produces a yawing motion.

When dealing with rudder failure, the first and most important thing to do is to stay calm. Don't lurch, fly gently, and don't try to force the aircraft. The rudder trim tab can provide a degree of yaw control if your rudder features one, which can alleviate the situation. Another unconventional method, and one that should only be attempted if the pilot and any passengers are firmly strapped into their seats, is to open the doors of the aircraft. Open doors disrupts the airflow around the aircraft, and creates an approximation of yaw control. Entering a forward slip can also help manage directional control as well, but the pilot needs to be sure to manage their altitude and add more power to prevent a spin from occurring.

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An aircraft adheres to similar principles of flight that birds do — it must overcome gravitational forces to achieve lift. In its simplest definition, the wings of an airplane curve the flow of air around them in order to generate lift.

English physicist Isaac Newton created three laws of motion that are applicable to all moving objects — even aircraft. The first law states that objects remain at rest or uniform motion unless they are compelled to change by an external force. The second law states that force is equal to the change in momentum per change in time. Essentially, force equals mass times acceleration. The last law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. These scientific laws are important in understanding how and why aircraft can fly. 

Lift is created mostly around the wings because the air flows over the top of the wing and directs the air downwards. This is why wings are designed to tilt from the horizontal plane of the aircraft. This is commonly referred to as the path of flight. Once an airplane is going fast enough, the downward air-flow starts produces enough pressure or force to overcome the weight and gravity that is holding the airplane to the ground. An airplane can achieve flight when enough force is produced to overcome weight and gravity.

The most important variable in generating lift is the tilt angle, or angle of attack. A pilot adjusts the angle of attack to control lift: too high of an angle of attack will stall the airplane— this is called the critical angle of attack. It is the difference between pitch angle and flight path angle when the flight path angle is referenced to the atmosphere. An airplane can reach a high angle of attack even with the nose below the horizon, when the flight path angle is a steep descent. 

Another famous contributor to the laws of aerodynamics was Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli. He stated that pressure is reduced as air increases in velocity. This principle supports flight along with Newton’s three laws of motion. As air flow comes into contact with the leading edge of a wing, it splits into two, flowing along the upper and lower surfaces. Because a typical aircraft has a cambered wing, the air will flow faster over the top and slower on the bottom: this means that there is higher pressure on the bottom surface of the wing. As the airplane gathers speed the amount of lift increases according to Newton and Bernoulli's principles of aerodynamics.

Another important component of wing design is ailerons. This structure is a hinged section close to the trailing edge of the wing that allows pilots to bank the aircraft left or right. They work in opposition to one another: as the right aileron is moved upward, the left aileron is moved downward. This creates an unbalanced side force component which causes the aircraft’s flight path to curve. With greater downward deflection of the airflow, the lift will increase upward.

One last important variable to mention is drag: the aerodynamic force that creates resistance against the forward motion of a plane. Thrust is generated by the engines to overcome drag and is supplemented by the aerodynamic shape of an aircraft; it’s key to remember that an aircraft is designed to balance out contradictory forces. All components contribute to the flight cycle— whether it be the engines, the wings, empennage, etc. The next time you see an aircraft, take a moment to admire the brilliance of its wings. 

At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all your wing components for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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As you prepare to go on a long car journey, you will likely need to check the fuel levels of your car. Luckily for you, there is a handy dial in the dashboard of your car which indicates your fuel supply. A pilot has a similar routine inside the cockpit, however, the miles covered are significantly more and the implications far more costly. Additionally, the fuel system of an aircraft is far more complex than in a car. Luckily for the pilot, a variety of fuel system indicators provide a comprehensive view of the system’s health.

Fuel Quantity Indicators

There are various types of fuel quantity indicators include simple, direct reading indicators, mechanical indicators, electric indicators, digital and electronic. The basic principle of most quantity indicators is the use of a float in the fuel tank. As the fuel levels change, the float moves up or down. In a float-type indicator, a carbon rod is attached to the float and extends through the fuel cap to indicate the fuel level. Mechanical gauges use the float system but feature a mechanical element that moves a pointer on a dial face located in the cockpit. A system of magnetic coupling is often found within mechanical fuel quantity indicators.

Electric fuel gauges operate using direct current (DC). These systems operate using variable resistance within an electric circuit to drive a ratiometer-type indicator. The movement of the float in the tank moves the indicator. Changes in the resistor change the electric current flowing in the indicator, which in turn. shows up on a calibrated dial corresponding to fuel quantity.

Digital indicators work in the same manner as electric fuel gauges however they convert the signal to digital display on a cockpit instrument head or digital flatscreen inside the cockpit.

More modern electronic fuel quantity systems, also known as fuel probes, do not have any moving parts inside the fuel tank. Instead, variable capacitance transmitters are installed at the bottom of the fuel tank. As the level of the fuel changes, the capacitance of each unit changes. Each of the readings is taken and an average fuel quantity measurement is computed.

Fuel Pressure Gauges

These gauges are a helpful verification that the fuel system is actually delivering fuel to the fuel metering device. The amount of fuel that is flowing through the fuel injectors directly corresponds to the pressure inside the emptying fuel injectors. Monitoring the fuel pressure at the indicators is a reliable measure of fuel flow. If a blockage occurs in the injector however, the readings will be off as the fuel flow is reduced, but the pressure level reading will be high. Pressure warning lights in the cockpit help to alert of any unusual activity within the fuel system.

Valve In-Transit Indicator Lights

More complex aircraft may have multiple fuel tanks that are all interconnected by a system of tubes and valves. To avoid pressure build up or leaks, it is important that each valve functions correctly. The essential movement of valves is opening and closing. System lights turn on and off in relation to the opening and closing of the valves.

At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the fuel indicator and flight instruments for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. A dedicated account manager is available 24/7 to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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On an aircraft, there are multiple electrical systems that play their part in ensuring the proper functioning and sustaining flight. Just like your house needs an electricity source, an aircraft needs a reliable source of power that will not only start up the aircraft but keep it running with all the various aircraft lights and indicators.

There a few key components of an electrical system that are found in all aircraft. While they may be more advanced in some aircraft, the underlying principles and features of an electrical system are the same throughout the various makes and models. There are switches, backup batteries, alternators, and voltage regulators. Like a typical electric system, electrical energy needs to be diverted and stored to prevent system outages.

The energy supply source of an aircraft reflects the efficiency of the aircraft. An engine driven generator delivers electrical power throughout the system. Without the electrical power of the generator, all the essential parts of the aircraft would not function.

For example, the generator helps to run the bright white taxi light that is located on the nose of the plane. Without power, the taxi light would not turn on, thus preventing a safe landing or take-off in darkness. The generator also supplies energy to a connected battery. While directing electricity to the battery lowers the overall electrical current, it is important to supply the battery with electricity in the case of a generator failure. It is also worth noting that a generator can produce electrical power even if the battery itself is dead.

On the other hand, alternators produce energy to efficiently operate the entire electrical system. Alternators produce electricity through the alternating current that is turned into direct current. The advantage of an alternator is that, compared to a generator, an alternator provides a more constant supply of energy. Just as you turn a light switch on and off, the alternator has a master switch that shifts the electrical load. The switch has the capability to channel all electricity to the battery; however, if the switch is turned off the entire electrical load is drawn from the battery. It is important to have this ability in case the alternator fails and needs to be shut off.

Despite their differences, generators, and alternators both need an accompanying instrument to help gauge the level of electricity that is generated. Ammeters are used to read the efficiency and the output of the generator or alternator. There needs to an adequate balance between the amount of energy being funneled into the battery versus how much energy is being pulled. On an ammeter, zero is the governing rate. If the reading is less than zero, the system is drawing more energy out of the battery that is being generated. A fully negative or positive reading is an indication of a larger electrical problem that should be addressed.

At, NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the aircraft electrical system parts such as generators, alternators, and ammeters for the civil and defense aerospace and aviation industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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A pneumatic system can power a variety of important aircraft operations including aircraft landing gear, air conditioning systems, flight control systems, and more. Whether a high-pressure system of 3000 psi, or a low-pressure system of 1000 psi, pneumatic systems are an integral part of today’s aircraft technology. A wonderful example of the uses of a pneumatic system is in its application on a twin-engine commercial airplane.

On this type of aircraft, two 4-stage compressors are controlled by the accessory gearbox of the engines. The main purpose of the pneumatic system in this scenario is to keep 3 storage bottles of compressed air at the systems air pressure requirement. All aircraft have a specific compressed air minimum needed to operate the reliant components, and the number of storage bottles on different aircraft will vary. A twin-engine commuter transport aircraft will have a 750 cu. storage bottle for the main system, 180 cu. bottle for normal break options, and 180 cu. bottles for emergency operations.

The multistage process starts by pulling air through an air duct and routing it to the air pump. This component is the core of the pneumatic system, it can be wet or dry, and pulls air through an inside casing, where it is then compressed. The air compressor raises pressure to slightly above the established needed pressure of the system, similar to hydraulic system methods. Installed control valves help to regulate pressure, flow, and temperature.

A check valve allows pressurized air to enter into the next stages of the pneumatic system at the correct psi. When pressure rises too far above the designated requirement, the valve will trap excess air and release the output. The pressure is controlled by variable restrictors and pressure regulating devices, which alter airflow and load as needed.

Air is then directed through an oil and water trap regulator or separator. As air is compressed, water and contaminants must be removed. Water has the potential to condense and freeze as it travels through the system; oil can contaminate the system. The separator resembles an upside-down soda bottle. Air is routed through a baffle at the top, which suspends 98% of moisture within the air flow. Then, within the cylindrical center of the separator, centrifugal force separates any remaining liquid from the air stream and holds it in a sump at the bottom. An electric heater keeps the excess liquid within the separator from freezing.

Lastly, the pressurized air is routed through an air filter to remove particulates. The air is directed through a 10 micron sintered filter. At this stage, the pressurized air is ready to enter the intended operating systems and is routed to the installed storage bottles.

At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find types of pneumatic systems and pneumatic system parts, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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The concept of the o-ring is very similar to that of a gasket. Both are specially designed seals that fill space between two surfaces in order to prevent leakage when a mechanism is static or compressed. An O-ring is designed to act as a seal to prevent fluid leakage in a variety of practicalities, including aircraft pneumatic and hydraulic systems.

Instead of the metal-based materials of a gasket, an o-ring is usually made of elastomers or relatively soft materials including silicone, neoprene, PTFE plastics, and more. The materials must be able to withstand varying temperatures and volatile operating environments. They are commonly designed alongside the hardware they are to be installed with, to ensure the dimensions of both are suited to the intended leakage prevention.

The o-ring, as its name suggests, is a toroid shape. The o-ring is rounded on all sides, and its shape forms a rounded cross-section which compresses diametrically. It sits within two metal hardware surfaces, and all together make up what is called a “gland”. As pressure rises within a sealing gland, the o-ring is compressed and attempts to shift to low-pressure areas. This process squeezes the seal altogether, and the resulting force binds the O-ring with the inner and outer walls of the gland, increasing sealing force and preventing fluid leakage.

Though relatively simple in design, the component can fail under certain parameters, and cause complications within a system. O-ring failure can occur under circumstances of extreme pressurization, excessive wear, chemical swelling, installation damage, and more. As such, it is important to remain up to date on manufacturer recommendations and specifications for o-ring inspection.

Overall, the o-ring is a versatile component that has been used in various industries for decades. It continues to be an important mechanism in aircraft pneumatic and hydraulic systems.

At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the aircraft fasteners and NSN parts suppliers you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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Aircraft material failures are one of the leading causes of aircraft engine failure. One of the most prevalent failures involves aircraft metal fatigue. The term refers to the exposure of metal aircraft components to continuous load stress, which leads to the accumulation of microcracks, and thus the weakening of said components. Determining whether aircraft metal fatigue will occur is not a matter of if, but when. Let’s examine how metal fatigue is caused over the life cycle of an aircraft, and how manufacturers determine fatigue limits and inspection.

During each flight cycle, an aircraft is subject to intense pressurization cycles and varying temperature fluctuations. The entire airframe will expand, contract, and shrink during the take-off and landing phase, increasing the stress load on metal components. Structures on the aircraft that experience higher levels of corrosion and pressure are increasingly vulnerable to metal fatigue. Additionally, aircraft that are used for shorter, more frequent flights, are more likely to experience metal fatigue. Regardless, due to the various stressors, an aircraft is exposed to, all aircraft are susceptible to metal fatigue at some point.

The initial development of micro-cracks is typically not visible to the human eye. Micro-cracks begin to develop on a molecular level, are difficult to see as they expand, and usually only reveal themselves when a part breaks completely. As a result, structural engineers and parts manufacturers have developed parameters in which to test for metal fatigue and the potential for failure.

Stress tests, or load tests, are conducted to determine how many stress cycles, and what applied a load, will cause metal fatigue or failure of a particular component. The data collected from these tests can be used to calculate the longevity and load limit of a part. Tests of this nature can also predict which parts will start to fail first, and when they will need to be inspected.

Another fascinating approach to detect fatigue is the monitoring of photoelasticity. A thin coat of the material in question can be applied on top of the component. Any change in optical properties can identify areas of deformation and stress throughout the component’s life cycle. This process can help maintenance professionals predict what the condition of the underlying component might be at any given time.

Even with numerous testing procedures and specified load limits, it is difficult to predict metal fatigue. Incidents of detrimental metal fatigue and failure still occur and account for around 20% of aircraft losses. The 1989 British Midland crash was caused by a fatigued fan blade. Similarly, Southwest Airlines is haunted by their 2018 metal fatigue incident, where it is suspected a stressed fan blade separated from the turbine and caused the left engine of the aircraft to fail.

With all of the above in consideration, it is extremely important that stringent inspection parameters and replacement recommendations set forth by the manufacturer are adhered to over the life cycle of an aircraft.

At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the Pratt and Whitney parts and assemblies you need, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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Aircraft was originally designed without brake systems and were able to slow down with the use of slower airspeeds, softer airfield surfaces, and friction developed by the tail skid. Brake systems started becoming more common when aircraft became faster and more complex and are now an integral aspect of an aircraft’s design. There are many different types of brakes and supportive technology used to slow down an aircraft.

Brakes are placed in different locations based on the aircraft’s demands and requirements. There are spoilers located on the top portion of the wing. They increase drag and reduce lift which helps an aircraft slow down for landing and is usually brought up completely once on the ground to assist in decreasing speed and taking some of the pressure off of the landing gear. Landing gear brakes and reverse thrust slow an aircraft down once it has landed. Reverse thrust redirects the engines thrust in the opposite direction in order to act against the forward travel and relieve some of the pressure put on the landing gear brakes.

Landing gear brakes are usually located on the main wheels. They are activated by pressing down on the top of the rudder and are controlled by mechanical/ hydraulic linkages. Earlier aircraft used mechanical brake controls such as cables. However, larger aircraft needed something stronger, so they started using pumps that provide hydraulic fluid pressure and volume. A newer design is the electrically activated brakes; they are lighter and are used on some of the newer generations of aircraft.

Modern aircraft usually use disc brakes. There are single disc brakes, floating disk brakes, fixed-disc brakes, dual-disc brakes, multiple-disc brakes, segmented rotor-disc brakes, and carbon brakes. Single disc brakes are common on lighter aircraft and multiple-disc brakes are used on larger aircraft. Segmented rotor-disc brakes are a modern multiple-disc brake, they control and dissipate heat on large and high-performance aircraft. Carbon brakes are a newer brake that is similar to the segmented rotor-disc brake in that they are capable of withstanding higher temperatures. Since they are a newer development, they still have a higher manufacturing cost; but they are much lighter and reduce the amount of weight added to an aircraft, which is why they are commonly found on high performance and air carrier aircraft.

Maintenance and repair organizations (MROs) are used when an aircraft needs maintenance, repair, or overhaul on their brakes. It is important to follow the regulations pertaining to brakes and complete visual inspections before each flight in order to ensure safety and airworthiness.

At NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the brakes you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at 1-914-359-2001.

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Jet engines are the heart and soul of modern aircraft, making the act of flying at incredible speeds possible. But in order to be sure that they work and it's safe to fly, jet engines need to adhere to strict standards and be rigorously tested for compliance. These standards are primarily for safety, but they're also for efficiency.

Jet engines are tested at several different stages, which include the manufacturing process, during engine installation on the aircraft, and following an overhaul or repair inspection during maintenance on the aircraft. During these tests, it's expected that the engine can handle debris, dust, sand, hail, snow, ice, excessive amounts of water, and all other situations an aircraft might encounter. All of these tests take up a high majority of the development costs of making an aircraft engine and can take years of development.

During the installation of the engine on the aircraft, these tests determine many functionality factors. For example, pressure checks are important because they insure the engine is creating the necessary thrust. Vibration and balance checks make sure the thrust is being directed in the correct direction and the engine is secured onto the aircraft wing. Oil and fuel checks are also important— they are intended to test that the fuel and computer systems are functioning properly. Lastly, leakage checks are done to verify all the fuel lines and lubricants are being distributed properly, with no leaks. Leaks can be disastrous and cause horrific accidents. 

Sometimes engines are also tested off the aircraft in a stand-alone configuration. This is used in situations where the aircraft engine has hit its limit on hours of operation and is being overhauled or refurbished. This is usually done every five years and determines that if the engine meets all technical requirements to maintain its flying status.

For all your aircraft engine needs make sure to visit NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor. Our mission is to provide fast, easy, and competitive pricing for the aircraft components you need. New or obsolete, we can help you find all the aircraft spares, aircraft engine parts, and avionics test equipment you need, 24/7x365. If you're interested in a quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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Believe it or not, but traveling by plane is significantly safer than by car. The many protocols, regulations, and safety nets commonly used in aviation simply outclass those implemented in standard vehicles. So, when a plane crashes, it comes instantaneous news and investigators work tirelessly to find out what happened. And their first clue is the aircraft black box.

The black box is essential to an aircraft. It contains flight data recorders as well as cockpit voice recorders. When the black box is retrieved, the information can be downloaded and can help explain what caused the accident. In some instances, the black box itself may be damaged, but the memory board inside can be salvaged. In order to retrieve data from these boxes, it can take weeks or even months.

Before the black box can collect data, that data is collected by sensors in the airplane and sent to the flight data acquisition unit. When turned on, data is then recorded by the flight data recorder. Microphones located in the cockpit document conversation and other sounds which are then recorded in the black box. These recordings can provide helpful information in the event that an aircraft is in an accident. To ensure functionality, black boxes typically use two generators with the main source of power coming from the aircraft’s engine.

Black boxes are designed to withstand harsh conditions as well as high-impact crashes. A combination of aluminum, high-temperature insulation, and stainless steel are used in their design. In the circumstance where an aircraft may be underwater, the black box also contains an underwater locator beacon--activated the instant water touches it--which sends ultrasonic pulses. Recently, in order to increase its durability, black boxes are transitioning from the use of magnetic tape towards the use of solid-state memory. The solid-state memory tends to be more reliable and less likely to be damaged in an accident.

NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, is the premier supplier of aircraft components, flight data recorders, and aircraft black boxes, new or obsolete. If you’re interested in a quote, email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at our toll-free number, +1-914-359-2001. We have a wide selection of parts to choose from and we fully equipped with a friendly staff, so you can always find what you’re looking for, 24/7x365.

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Planes can range anywhere from the size of a sedan to the size of the Titanic. And the number of parts they have can range from a couple thousand to the 6,000,000 that the Boeing 747 boasts. To someone who isn't in the business of working with planes, understanding what parts make up a plane can seem daunting and impossible. Fortunately, it's not, because most planes have the same 5 major components that are then broken down into hundreds and thousands of aircraft parts.

The fuselage, the main body of the plane, is generally the largest part. It includes the cabin, storage space, and the controls. Typically, the fuselage is the central component of a plane, as the other 4 components are typically attached to it. A firewall separates the fuselage from the power plant, and the empennage, wings, and landing gear are directly attached to the fuselage. The wings, also known as the airfoils, are what provides the lift and allows the plane to fly.

Wings have to maintain aerodynamic in order to stay in the air, so they generally also have flaps or slats that the pilot can manipulate in order to change the plane’s operating characteristics. The empennage is the entire tail group, which includes the vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, rudder, elevator or stabilator, and the trim tabs. The landing gear, usually beneath the fuselage, includes all the parts related to landing the plane, mainly the wheels. And the powerplant, arguably the most important component, includes the engine and aircraft propeller, which power the plane.

Luckily, you don't need to be an expert in order to order aircraft parts like wings or landing gear. Instead, you can contact us at NSN Fulfillment. NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, should always be your first and only stop for all your hard to find aircraft parts. NSN Fulfillment is your premier online distributor of whether new, old or hard to find, they can help you locate the aviation components you need. NSN Fulfillment has a wide selection of parts to choose from and is fully equipped with a friendly staff, so you can always find what you're looking for, at all hours of the day. If you're interested in obtaining a quote, email our sales department at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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Those who work in the aerospace and aviation industries know better than anyone how important it is to have everything, every piece from the enormous fuselage to the smallest nuts and bolts, be perfect. When it comes to getting massive hunks of metal weighing in the tons to be airborne and fly, every little detail needs to be calculated and accounted for. So, even aviation industrial fasteners, like other metal items and components, are often heat-treated in order to achieve the “perfect” level of rigidity, smoothness, malleability, or strength.

Heat-treating, or annealing, may seem like a simple process, but it actually involves a lot of consideration. Fastener distributors need to think about the chemistry of the elements, cleaning and drying the parts properly, and making sure that the functional shape of the fastener is not damaged or altered in any way, to name a few. When heat-treating a fastener, the chemistry needs to be noted because even something as simple as an excess of 0.003% of Boron used in the process can result in significantly reduced strength.

Failing to clean and dry the fastener properly can also have disastrous effects as contaminants and dirt can lead to corrosion and degradation of a fastener that would otherwise have a longer life. Damaging the threads of a fastener during the handling stage of heat-treating can also similarly disastrous results. When the tread is flawed, the fastener may end up with gaps or damaging the other components it is attached to. There are a lot of little details that need to be considered when heat-treating a fastener.

Fortunately, you don’t need to be an expert on heat-treating fasteners yourself. Instead, you can contact us at NSN Fulfillment and have us do all the worrying. NSN Fulfillment, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, should always be your first and only choice for your aircraft fastener and aircraft component needs. We are a premier supplier of aviation parts and we can help you find any aircraft fasteners, even the hard-to-find and obsolete.

With our knowledgeable staff, massive inventory, strict quality assurance, and 24/7 service, we are always ready to help you find all the parts you need. If you’re interested in obtaining a quote for an aircraft fastener or other aircraft components, feel free to email us at sales@nsnfulfillment.com or call us at +1-914-359-2001.

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