What Are the Functionalities and Applications of MOSFETs?

Within the world of computers and electronic devices, a number of components have greatly revolutionized our electronic capabilities and their power. The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOSFET, is an insulated-gate field-effect transistor and semiconductor device that is implemented within electronics for the means of switching and amplifying electronic signals. With its capabilities, the MOSFET serves as the basic building block of all modern electronics and has become the most manufactured device in all of history. In this blog, we will discuss what MOSFETS are, how they function, and their common applications.

The MOSFET electronic component is a four terminal device, those including the source, gate, drain, and body. The body of the MOSFET is attached to a source terminal, leaving three terminals for other operations. Within both analog and digital circuits, the MOSFET most often serves as a transistor, and the electronic component may provide various function by changing the electrical variations that occur within the channel of the MOSFET with the gate electrode voltage. Generally, a MOSFET electronic component may function in either a depletion mode or an enhancement mode, and such functionality is determined by voltage. Depletion mode occurs when there is no voltage induced at the gate terminal of the MOSFET, and thus the channel has maximum conductance. As a result, the channel conductivity is decreased when the voltage induced at the gate terminal is negative or positive. With enhancement mode, the device is unable to conduct while there is no presence of voltage. When voltage is induced at the gate, an enhancement mode MOSFET will increase conductivity.

As a result, the main functionality provided by a MOSFET device is to govern the voltage and current flow that is present between the source and drain terminals. As such, the MOSFET electronic component operates similarly to a switch based on its MOS capacitor. Between the source and drain terminal, a semiconductor surface operates as either a p-type or n-type, and this type can be inverted through the induction of positive and negative gate voltage.

With a p-type channel MOSFET, four terminals are present and the drain and source are heavily doped p+ sections. Meanwhile, the body is an n-type, and current moves through the component in the directions of the positive charged holes. If negative voltage current is induced at the gate terminal, electrons are forced dowards into the substrate, and this attracts the p+ source and drain region into the channel region.

Similar to the p-type channel, the drain and source areas feature heavy doping of n+ while the substrate is a p-type. Due to its negatively charged electrons, positive voltage induced at the gate terminal causes the holes under the oxide layer to be forced into the substrate, and the depletion region is filled with bound negative charges. The travelling electrons then produce a new channel, and the positive voltage attracts the n+ source and drains electrons towards the channel. When a negative voltage is applied to the same region instead of a positive one, the hole channel is formed under the oxide layer.

With their various capabilities, MOSFETs often serve as the main transistor for digital and analog integrated circuits. From digital telecommunication systems to video games, many common electronic applications that we experience daily are made possible through the operations that MOSFETs conduct. As amplifiers, MOSFETs are used within applications such as radio-frequency amplification, audio-frequency amplification, sound reinforcement, and more. As a switch, MOSFETS are typically found in devices such as switch mode power supplies and power electronics.

Due to the great capabilities that are provided by MOSFETs, utilizing them for your electronic operations can be highly beneficial. At NSN Fulfillment, we can help you procure the MOSFET electronic components and circuit protection parts that you need, including top requested part numbers such as VN02AN-11-E and 1 5KE120ARL. Whether you are in need of Stmicroelectronics manufacturer parts and those from other top global manufacturers, we provide rapid lead-time and competitive pricing on all that we carry for your benefit. Get started on the purchasing process today and see how we can help you fulfill all of your operational needs with ease.


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